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graphene oxide, alumina particle, polydimethylsiloxane, thermal conductivity, thermal interface material


Small amounts of thermally conductive graphene oxide (GO) and modified GO are systematically introduced as a second filler to thermal interface materials (TIMs) consisting of alumina (Al2O3) particles and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The surface of GO is covalently linked with an organic moiety, octadecylamine (ODA), to significantly improve the miscibility and dispersity of GO across the TIM matrix. Subsequently, two series of PDMS-Al2O3 composite TIMs are manufactured as a function of GO and ODA-GO content (0.25 wt%–2.5 wt%) to understand the effect of these second additives. The incorporation of GO into the Al2O3-PDMS composite materials generally increases the thermal conductivity (TC), ranging from 18% to 29%. Conversely, the use of ODA-GO further enhances the overall performance of TIMs (22–54%) by facilitating the dispersion degree of GO across the composite matrix. The great improvement in TC is presumably related to the formation of conductive pathways by uniformly integrating 2D-type GO flakes across spherical Al2O3 particle networks. The ability to simply regulate the polarity of the thermally conductive second filler can provide an idea for designing cost-effective and practical TIM-2-type pads that can be commercially applicable in between an integrated heat spreader and a heat sink.

Funding Source

This research was supported by the SME Technology Development Support Project (Project Number: RS-2023-00267721).




First published in Crystals 2024, 14, 490; 10.3390/cryst14060490

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

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