Date of Award
Thesis and Dissertation
Master of Science (MS)
School of Kinesiology and Recreation
Dale D. Brown
An association has been established between total dietary energy intake and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in adolescents. However, there is little research examining specific dietary components, such as fruit and vegetable intake. PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this research is to determine if an association exists between fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake and CRF in adolescents. A secondary purpose of this study is to determine if an association exists between F/V intake and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A sample of 424 adolescents (234 males and 190 females), age 10-18 years, completed the Dietary Behavior section of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the FITNESSGRAM 20-meter Pacer test (PACER). Height and weight were also measured to determine BMI. This section of the YRBS assesses F/V intake based on intake frequency over a one-week period. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was estimated from the PACER results and categorized based on the FITNESSGRAM aerobic standards, placing individuals into one of three categories: Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ), Needs Improvement (NI), and Needs Improvement – Health Risk (NI-HR). Body composition was estimated using Body Mass Index (BMI), which was calculated from participants’ height and weight, and categorized based on the FITNESSGRAM BMI standards, placing individuals into one of four categories: Very Lean (VL), HFZ, NI, and NI-HR. Mean differences in total F/V intake for participants in each of the CRF and BMI categories were assessed using a one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: The mean total F/V (F/V) intake values (times per week) showed slight differences between each of the categories. For male participants the F/V intake values in the HFZ, NI, and NI-HR categories were 19.9 (SD 15.2), 15.8 (SD 19.2), and 19.1 (SD 13.8) respectively. The mean F/V intake for female participants in the HFZ, NI, and NI-HR categories were 20.9 (SD 16.2), 20.3 (SD 19.6), and 15.9 (SD 9.6) respectively. However, none of these differences were statistically significant (all p>0.05). Average F/V intakes were also individually analyzed, but with similar results (all p>0.05). Similar results were found for mean F/V intake between each of the BMI categories. F/V intake for male participants in the VL, HFZ, NI, and NI-HR categories were 19.6 (SD 13.1), 18.9 (SD 16.1), 20.3 (SD 14.6), and 17.5 (SD 18.1) respectively. The mean F/V intake for females in the VL, HFZ, NI, and NI-HR categories were 25.6 (SD 16.1), 19.6 (SD 15.2), 24.5 (SD 22.1), and 15.4 (SD 11.6) respectively. Likewise, none of these differences were significant (all p>.05). CONCLUSION: F/V intake does not have a significant association with CRF or BMI values in adolescents.
Grimwood, Jonathan C., "Association of Fruit and Vegetable Intake with Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adolescents" (2017). Theses and Dissertations. 676.