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Date of Award


Document Type

Thesis-ISU Access Only

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


School of Kinesiology and Recreation

First Advisor

Skip M. Williams


The 2008 Physical Activity (PA) Guidelines for Americans, issued by the US Department of Health and Human Services, recommended that children and adolescents age 6-17 years should have 60 minutes or more of PA each day. Currently, more than 80% of adolescents do not get enough aerobic PA to meet the recommended guidelines (USDHHS, 2010), and for physical educators, it is not possible in most schools to provide the 60 minutes of daily PA for every student through the PE program alone. Efforts to design the most appropriate learning environments for adolescents frequently lead to discussions of single-sex versus coeducational schooling (McKenzie, et. al, 2004). As school districts started coming into compliance with Title IX, the inevitable question began to be asked, “Is co-education or single-sex PE the best learning environment for all students?” (Hannon, J. & Williams, S., 2008). The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of skill level and gender on junior high PE students’ PA levels during game play in coed and single-sex settings.

This study took place in a junior high school in the Midwest United States. There were 143 participants with the sample size incorporating two 6th grade classes and two 7th grade classes (n= 76 females and n= 67 males). Students’ ages ranged from 12-14 years of age. The study took place during six days of 3 vs 3 basketball game play and six days of Saturn ball game play. The students’ physical activity (PA) level was monitored using Blink 3.0 heart rate monitors. Average heart rate levels were calculated and documented by the heart zone application software. Students and parents were informed of the study taking place. Students completed a self-assessment of each of the invasion games prior to the first day of game play in order to place them on varied skill-level teams. Results revealed that there was a statistically significant gender x setting interaction. Specifically, girls in single-gender classes yielded higher PA compared to girls in co-ed classes and boys in the co-ed classes yielded higher PA then boys in the single-gender classes (adjusted mean difference = 15.8 bpm, 95%CI: 0.37 bpm – 31.2 bpm, p = 0.045, d = 0.22). Boys within the Saturn unit yielded higher PA compared to girls (mean difference = 6.5 bpm, p = 0.002, d = 0.40).


Imported from ProQuest Leinweber_ilstu_0092N_11467.pdf


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