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Date of Award
Thesis-ISU Access Only
Master of Science (MS)
Eric W. Peterson
To better characterize the distribution of Holocene and Late Quaternary deposits and begin to assess the hydrogeology and contamination potential in the Gibson City East 7.5-Minute Quadrangle, Surficial Geologic and Aquifer Sensitivity maps were created. Soils data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, geologic logs from various types of borings, including water wells, oil and gas explorations boreholes, and test holes for underground structures and building of infrastructure, and LiDAR topographic data presented as gridded DEM hillshades were compiled and analyzed using ESRI’s ArcGIS 10.6.1 to determine the extent and thickness of the geologic materials on the land surface, and in the shallow subsurface. Field verification of the geologic materials was completed after initial data compilation in GIS. Aquifer sensitivity to contamination was estimated based primarily on the depth to the first aquifer unit, aquifer thickness, and the lithology of the aquifer materials. In general, deeply buried and thinner aquifer units are less susceptible to contamination, while shallower, thicker aquifer units are more susceptible to contamination. The surficial geologic mapping identified different lithologies that were classified to five lithostratigraphic units: the Cahokia Formation, Equality Formation, Henry Formation, and Yorkville and Batestown Members of the Lemont Formation. The southeast to northwest trending Illiana Morainic System is the most prominent feature in the study area and delineates the maximum extent of the glaciers during the Livingston Phase of glaciation. Postglacial deposits assigned to the Cahokia Formation are mapped along channels and drainage ways downslope of the moraine. These deposits interfinger and overlie with glacial outwash of the Henry Formation. The Batestown till is present in the southwest and southeast corners of the map beyond the margin of the Lake Michigan Lobe. The potential of shallow aquifer units to contamination are delimited by 9 classes: most sensitive to least sensitive, (A3 to E1), respectively. In general, the areas of least sensitivity are located over the Illiana Morainic System, whereas the greatest potential to contamination occurs where the thickest deposits of the Henry Formation and Cahokia Formation lie at or just below the land surface.
Watson, Andrew L., "Surficial Geology and Aquifer Sensitivity of the Gibson City East 7.5-Minute Quadrangle, Ford and Champaign Counties, Illinois" (2019). Theses and Dissertations. 1114.