Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

First Advisor

Gregory L Miller


This project analyzed use wear on 100 artifacts recovered from two Late Archaic sites located on Grand Island, Michigan, Duck Lake and Popper. I have divided my project into three phases. The first phase involved a simple presence/absence study of microwear on a sample of informal and formal tools from Grand Island. The goal of this phase was to create a replicable methodology and scoring method for the different types of wear identified in the Grand Island assemblage. The second phase involved several tasks. Initially, I reconstructed several tools from quartz, quartzite, and chert from Grand Island and then used these pieces to complete several tasks. I did planing and cutting activities on wet antler and hard antler to discover how antler processing affects and effects stone tools. Next, I butchered, gutted, and filleted a half dozen fish with expedient stone knives. These fish experiments varied from five to twenty minutes of use. This phase of the project examined how use accrues on stone tools. Although not exhaustive, it does provide a baseline for comparison of use and a steppingstone for the next phase of research. I was able to determine that stone tools accrue use starting at 5 minutes. Light polish begins to display at between 5-15 minutes, Medium polish displays 15-25 minutes, and heavy polish appears greater than 25 minutes. The third and final phase compared the use marks from my experimental section to the use marks on the artifacts to attempt to determine the activities these tools were used for and potentially how long they were usedIn addition to these three phases, I created a scale of use for the intensity of polish formation on artifacts from Grand Island. In concert with polish formation, I determined that striations along the tool edge determined direction of use. Lateral striations to the blade edge signify lateral movement and perpendicular striations indicated a movement that has been used in a scraping or planning motion. I have successfully compared two Late Archaic sites from Grand Island, Michigan. I created a usewearmethodology for determination and scoring of use on quartz and quartzite expedient stone tools, and I have created a replicable methodology that can be utilized on all sites and all time periods. The study concluded, based on the methodology created, that there is a difference in the way the tools at Duck Lake and Popper were used.


Imported from Hill_ilstu_0092N_11997.pdf


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