Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Department of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures

First Advisor

Montserrat Mir


The present research study examines the effectiveness of two types of in two Spanish classrooms for beginner students: planned focus on form and incidental focus on form. Focus on form is understood as an instructional practice that creates a real-life context to let students practice some aspects of the language in a communicative environment based on both meaning and form. In this study, planned focus on form is operationalized as input enhancement in classroom materials and teacher talk. On the other hand, incidental focus on form involves teacher´s spontaneous attention to form in teacher talk. Language learning was measured through pre- and post-tests in five grammar-focused lessons. Results indicate that each group of learners equally showed improved knowledge of the targeted grammatical concepts as evidenced by post-test scores. The lack of distinction between planned and incidental focus on form groups´ performance may be due to limitations in test design and implementation. Nonetheless, this research showed that both types of instructional techniques are similarly effective in the learning of explicitly grammatical knowledge in Spanish L2 beginner classes.


Imported from Monasterio_ilstu_0092N_12288.pdf


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