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Graduation Term


Document Type

Dissertation-ISU Access Only

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Department of Psychology: School Psychology

Committee Chair

Gary L. Cates


As education law evolves, educators are faced with difficult decisions regarding curriculum, prevention programs, and intervention strategies to use with their students. The use of evidence-based strategies for all academic skill areas, including reading, has become increasely common in schools. Twenty-four 4th grade students participated in an initial assessment session to determine their instructional and frustration levels using non-fiction passages. Then, each participant read 12 intervention passages, 6 passages at the student's instructional level and 6 at the student's frustration level. The intervention sessions included two readings of each passage. The first readings included error correction using Word Supply, Word Repeat, Error Drill, Sentence Supply, Sentence Repeat, and Error Drill. The second readings occurred without any intervention. Following the reading of each passage, students answered ten comprehension questions (five factual and five inferential). The amount of instructional time was recorded for each passage. Specific data regarding changes in reading accuracy, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were collected including efficiency data (the amount of change per minute of instructional time). Results showed student reading accuracy increased when using Error Drill and Phrase Drill on instructional level materials and

Word Repeat, Sentence Repeat, Error Drill, and Phrase Drill on frustration level materials. Student reading fluency improved significantly for Word Supply, Word Repeat, Sentence Supply, Sentence Repeat, and Phrase Drill when using both instructional level and frustration level materials. Reading comprehension scores varied depending on the category of comprehension. Specifically, factual reading comprehesion signficantly increased with Word Repeat on instructional level passages and Word Supply, Word Repeat, Sentence Supply, and Sentence Repeat on frustration level passages. No signficant effects were found for inferential comprehension. Total reading comprhension was only significant on instructional level passages using Word Repeat. Results of error correction procedures on self-corrections and meaning change errors were also reported.


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