Graduation Term


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


School of Kinesiology and Recreation

Committee Chair

Kelly R. Laurson


Resistance training programs utilize variables such as exercise volume, intensity, muscular activation, and tension in order to obtain specific hypertrophic adaptations. The challenge of designing a hypertrophy-centric program is understanding the non-uniform adaptations of skeletal muscle. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to observe the impact of two volume-equated, whole body exercise protocols over 9 weeks utilizing 9 different compound exercises on non-uniform muscle adaptations. METHODS: Fourteen (age = 20.9 ± 1.3 years; body mass = 84.0 ± 11.1 kg; fat free mass = 67.3 ± 5.7 kg), well-trained men randomly assigned to a hypertrophy based protocol (HG) or a strength based protocol (SG). The HG performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions, with a rest period of 90 seconds between sets (n = 8). The SG performed 7 sets of 3 repetitions with 3 minutes of rest between sets (n = 6). Pre, mid, and post testing of proximal and distal muscle thickness measurements (MT) were taken on each subject’s forearm flexors (FF), forearm extensors (FE), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus lateralis (VL). Each measurement was taken on the right side of the body to develop consistency across all of the subjects. RESULTS: After 9 weeks, statistically significant differences between SG and HG at both the Proximal Forearm Flexors (PFF) and Distal Forearm Extensors (DFE). There were significant differences in the trajectory of change between the groups (p = .040) and throughout pre-, mid- and post-testing (p = .034, .001, .000) of the PFF. Between the groups, DFE was statistically different at post-testing (p = .036) and for overall trajectory of change (p = .040). However, there were no statistically significant differences between groups in the other muscle thickness measurements. CONCLUSIONS: When a strength and hypertrophy full-body resistance training programs are equated for volume, non-uniform hypertrophy occurs in the distal FE and proximal FF MT sites of the forearm, but fails to be seen in the quadriceps MT sites.


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