Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


School of Communication

First Advisor

Rebecca Hayes

Second Advisor

Megan Hopper


The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of disclaimers of photogenic manipulation, models’ body types, and the interaction between the two through the theoretical lenses of social comparison theory and priming effects. In an online experiment, this study employs a 3 (no disclaimer, presence of digital enhancement disclaimer, absence of digital enhancement disclaimer) by 2 (thin model body type and average model body type) factorial analysis to tease apart the effects of disclaimers on consumers (social comparison, self-esteem, and wishful identification) and the organizations that are compelled or choose to employ them (brand attitudes and perceptions of credibility, perceived organizational morality, purchasing intention, and loyalty). The results of this study highlight the implications and considerations for advertisements in the beauty and fashion industries as well as any company that uses digital manipulation on physically attractive models in their advertisements.


Imported from ProQuest Gabl_ilstu_0092N_11013.pdf


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