Graduation Term


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Department of Special Education

Committee Chair

Christina M. Borders


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and efficiency of using dyadic communication with a teacher of the deaf (ToD) and a Deaf/Hard of Hearing (D/HH) student compared to a triadic communication with a general education teacher, sign language interpreter, and D/HH student. Four participants in a self-contained D/HH early childhood classroom participated in both comparison groups using dyadic and triadic communication to acquire vocabulary language skills for communication while playing a preschool game. An adapted alternating treatment design (AATD) for single case research was used to rapidly alternate comparison groups using equivalent games and counterbalanced across participants. Interobserver agreement was used for data and procedural reliability. Results revealed the dyadic condition to be optimal for both receptive and expressive vocabulary acquisition for efficiency and effectiveness. Stakeholders gave information regarding perceptions of the study through a social validation survey. Additional findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.


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