Document Type


Publication Title

Reading Psychology

Publication Date



Diagram analysis, knowledge activation, knowledge building, multiple text comprehension, reading comprehension, reading development


The current study examines a multidimensional set of outcome variables to understand whether different pre-reading scaffolds influence students’ text comprehension, diagram analysis, text integration, and interest; and investigates these constructs cross-sectionally to identify any progression as students move across grades. One-hundred fifty-six 3rd through 6th grade students enrolled in a public laboratory school were randomly assigned to one of three pre-reading conditions intended to activate or build students’ topic knowledge. Students completed a series of before, during, and after reading activities while engaging with grade appropriate texts about the topics of ecosystems and living things. Results indicate that there were no significant differences between the three pre-reading conditions on any of the four constructs of interest. Students across grade levels performed well on multiple-choice comprehension questions, but not as well on diagram analysis questions or an open-ended integration task. Implications and future directions are discussed.

Funding Source

This article was published Open Access thanks to a transformative agreement between Milner Library and Taylor & Francis.


This article was published in Reading Psychology, DOI: 10.1080/02702711.2023.2187907.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.