Document Type


Publication Title

Behavioral Disorders

Publication Date



paraprofessionals, emotional or behavioral, disorders/disabilities, single-case, experimental design, individualized, instruction, evidence-based practices, interventions, elementary, age group


Paraprofessionals play a significant role in the education system. However, they often need more training on specific instructional strategies to use with the students they work with. In this study, we trained two paraprofessionals working in a self-contained elementary classroom for students with high-intensity behavioral support needs. Each paraprofessional used constant time delay to support students’ learning to read grade-level sight and science words. Paraprofessionals also gathered maintenance and generalization sessions using individualized social stories created by the classroom teacher. Not only did the four student participants meet mastery of their personalized word sets but paraprofessionals also implemented all phases with high fidelity. We discuss limitations, implications for practice, and recommendations for future research.

Funding Source

This article was published Open Access thanks to a transformative agreement between Milner Library and Sage.


First published in Behavior Disorders (2024).

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



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