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Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy

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This case study investigates the reading processes of two bilingual teachers who speak English as a second language and use different first languages—Mandarin Chinese and Korean. The two participants read researcher-selected digital texts in English and in their respective first language, retold the texts, and answered comprehension questions about the texts. Their reading aloud and eye movements were recorded for miscue and eye movement analysis. Using Eye Movement Miscue Analysis, the findings showcase the distinctive characteristics of their first-language and second-language reading processes. The cross-linguistic comparison between bilingual reading processes further shows the bilingual participants' similarities and differences in terms of the use of language systems, eye movements, language variations, and image use. This study supports the understanding of non-Roman alphabetical language speakers' reading process, adds to our understanding of the bilingual reading process, and provides teaching and research implications for bilingual teachers and educators.

Funding Source

This work was supported by the Center for Expansion of Language and Thinking under the reading research grant.


First published in the Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy (2024).

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.



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