Literature Review: Pullout Lessons in Instrumental Music Education

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Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education

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This article reviews literature related to pullout instruction in instrumental music education. Pullout lessons involve withdrawing certain students from their regularly scheduled class for the purpose of instrumental study. The prevalence of pullout scheduling, attitudes towards the practice, and the effect of pullouts on academic achievement are addressed. Implications of these findings and the need for further research are also discussed. Many administrators, teachers, and parents assume that providing instruction through pullouts will cause a decline in scholastic performance due to missed class time. Research, however, has found no significant difference between the academic achievement of students who left class for instrumental study, and those who did not, regardless of school size and student background.


This article was published in Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, No. 159, pp. 1-10, December, 2004,