An Overview of Job Embeddedness

Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 5-15-2011


Nurse retention, nurse turnover, nurse workforce


Nursing turnover in health care organizations is a considerable problem that needs to be reframed within the context of “nurse retention” and “job embeddedness” (JE). A construct from the business literature, JE has been associated with “retention” or “antiwithdrawal.” Conversely, turnover encompasses the process of quitting. This distinction is significant. JE represents a mediating construct between various “on-the-job” (organizational) factors, “off-the-job” (community) factors, and employee retention. This article presents an overview of JE including the dimensions, the related concepts of turnover and retention, and associated research. JE may be used to develop specific nurse-retention strategies following careful organizational and community assessment. With the current and looming nursing shortage, perhaps it is time for health care institutions to consider the adaptation of JE tenets.


Originally published as Reitz. O.E. & Anderson, M.A. (2011). An overview of Job Embeddedness. Journal of Professional Nursing, 27(5), 320-327. Version of record available at doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2011.04.004.