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Handedness, role-differentiated bimanual manipulation, multilevel analysis, infant


Role-differentiated bimanual manipulation (RDBM) is a complex behaviour requiring the complementary movement of two hands to achieve a common goal. We investigated the relation of RDBM speed (time to complete a successful RDBM) with a hand preference for acquiring objects (early right, late right, left, no preference), toy type (simple/difficult), age (9-14 months), and hand (right/left) used to perform the RDBM. Changes in RDBM speed across age were examined across different hand preference groups for RDBMs performed on simple toys using the right hand. The analysis revealed that early-right preference infants had a steeper slope than the no preference/left-preference infants. The same was true for right-preference infants (early- and late-) for RDBMs performed on difficult toys using the right hand. A mixed ANOVA revealed that there were decreases in RDBM times across age, therefore infants are faster at performing RDBMs over time, regardless of toy type, hand used, or hand preference. The results of the present study suggest that when exploring the development of hand preference, we should consider the influence of age, hand preference, and hand used.

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This article was published Open Access thanks to a transformative agreement between Milner Library and Taylor & Francis.


First published in Laterality: Asymmetries of Brain, Behaviour, and Cognition (2024).

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author, [J.M.C], upon reasonable request.



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