Wild lupine (Lupinus perennis) is the obligate host plant for larvae of the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis). The purpose of this study was to determine whether planting wild lupine in dry prairie sites (areas previously devoid of wild lupine but having appropriate habitat structure for its growth) would result in colonization from existing populations of Karner blue butterflies over time, thereby adding to metapopulation stability. The newly planted sites were on private and public land and ranged in area from 0.81 to 8.1 ha (from 2 to 20 acres). They were located within about 3.2 km (2 mi) of existing Karner blue butterfly–occupied sites.
Shillinglaw, John, "Strengthening Karner Blue Butterfly Metapopulations" (2016). 2016 North American Prairie Conference. 3.