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Kinesiology & Recreation


Nikki Hoffman

Mentor Department

Kinesiology & Recreation


Noelle Selkow

Co-Mentor Department

Kinesiology & Recreation


Background: Concussions are a growing public health concern, and emerging possible long-term health risks may negatively impact an individual’s quality of life. With concussions, there can be a diverse multitude of signs and symptoms, but frequent long-term sequelae of concussions including mood disturbances (e.g. anxiety and depression) and sleep disturbances (e.g. difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep) are given less attention. Few clinicians include mood and sleep disturbances in their concussion assessment and management plan, therefore potentially placing individuals at risk for prolonged disturbances beyond recovery. Purpose: To examine the significance of relationships between sleep quality and the prevalence of mood disturbances in healthy young adults with and without a history of concussions. Methods: Two hundred fifty healthy young adults from 4 universities across the country completed a one-time, 15-20-minute anonymous survey administered via Qualtrics. Survey components consisted of demographic information, concussion history, two mental health questionnaires (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory) and two sleep quality questionnaires (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Insomnia Severity Index). Exclusion criteria consisted of having suffered a concussion or traumatic brain injury within the past 9 months, history of cancerous brain tumors, and diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, or bipolar disorder. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used as the primary statistical analysis. Results: Data collection is still in progress. Using SEM, we hypothesize that history of concussion may directly impact anxiety and depression, but sleep quality mediates this relationship. Conclusion: This study will provide foundational insight into the relationship of sleep quality, anxiety, and depression in healthy young adults with concussion history. Understanding the relationship between these areas may help guide clinicians to better recognize and manage these prolonged sleep and mood disturbances that may continue well past recovery.


Authors: Jessica Barrack, Noelle Selkow, and Nikki Hoffman

Sleep Quality And Prevalence Of Anxiety And Depression In Young Adults With Concussion History