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Problem or Major Purpose: The present study examines the association among self-affirmation, hope,and self-esteem. Self-affirmation is a process that involves compensating for threatened domains of one's self-worth (e.g., feeling unintelligent after failing a test) by being reminded of positive aspects of one's identity that are not threatened (e.g., feeling positive about being a loving sister); the tendency to self-affirm has been linked to decreased perceptions of threat, and thus may increase faith in one's ability to achieve positive outcomes (i.e., hope) and ultimately bolster self-esteem (Sherman & Cohen, 2006; Tesser, 2000). Given that hope has been linked to accomplishing goals (Snyder, 1995) and self-esteem (Frieson & Frieson, 1997), it is possible that hope may be a critical determinant of self-esteem maintenance. The present study examined whether the link between self-affirmation and self-esteem was due to associations with greater hope. Specifically, we predicted a mediation effect wherein self-affirmation would predict greater hope, which in turn would predict greater self-esteem.
Ullrich, Taylor and Ivanoff, Stephanie, "Hopefulness: Explaining the Link Between Self-affirmation and Self-esteem" (2020). Psychology. 3.