Date of Award
Master of Science (MS)
Department of Agriculture
Edamame [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is a specialty soybean that originated from East Asia. It is consumed as a raw vegetable or cooked in various ways. The demand for edamame has rapidly increased in the U.S. due to its beneficial phytonutrient and phytochemical contents. Sulfur fertility is an essential micronutrient for green plants to contribute to the flavor of vegetables. Therefore, the effect of S fertility levels on the biochemical contents and the flavor of edamame in hydroponic systems was investigated. Seeds of the 'Chiba' edamame was sown under greenhouse conditions at 22oC day/ 14oC night in the fall of 2020 and transferred to hydroponic systems containing modified Hoagland’s solution containing S treatment concentration of 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 mg S L-1 supplied with magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The experimental design was a randomized complete block design and five treatments, each having four replications. Edamame plants (bean, root, and leaf) were harvested at the R6 stage on December 14, 2020. Plant biomass for bean, root, and leaf tissues was measured. Fresh bean biomass and fresh and dry biomass for root and leaf were not significant. Mineral elements for bean, root, and leaf tissues were analyzed using ICP-MS. The accumulation of nutrient elements (K, P, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, B, Zn, Cu, Mo, and Se) in bean, root, and leaf was not significant. While S accumulation in bean and root was not affected (P=0.1041 and P=0.3887, respectively) by S treatment, S accumulation in leaf was significantly increased (P=0.0073) in response to increased S treatment levels. Pigment and carbohydrate contents in edamame bean tissues were analyzed using HPLC methodologies. The concentration of carotenoids (Lutein, Chlorophyll a, and Chlorophyll b) and saccharides (mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides) remained stable among S treatments. Fatty acids in the bean were analyzed by using gas chromatography. The concentration of fatty acids (monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acids, polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acids, and saturated fatty acids) remained stable among S treatments. Amino acids in the bean were analyzed by using Near Infra-red Spectroscopy. The concentration of protein and oil and amino acids (Ala, Arg, Asp, Cys, Glu, Gly, His, Hyl, Hyp, Ile, Lan, Leu, Lys, Met, Orn, Phe, Pro, Ser, Thr, Trp, Tyr, Val) remained stable among S treatment. When S supplementation increased, S accumulation in edamame leaf tissues was significantly increased, while bean and root tissues were not significant. Since S accumulation in bean tissues was not significant, carotenoids, sucrose (a contributor to sweetness), carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acid contents were unaffected among S treatment levels.
Son, Sangrak, "Edamame [ Glycine Max ( L. ) Merrill ] Leaf Sulfur Concentration Increased in Response to Increased Sulfur Fertility, while Carotenoids and Sucrose in Bean Tissues Remain Constant" (2022). Theses and Dissertations. 1622.