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surficial geology; aquifer sensitivity; Wisconsin Glacial Episode; Illinoian Glacial Episode; Mahomet Aquifer; Glacial Deposits


To characterize the distribution of Holocene and Late Quaternary deposits and to assess the contamination potential of the Mahomet Aquifer, surficial geologic and aquifer sensitivity maps of the Gibson City East 7.5-Minute Quadrangle were created. Geologic data, extent, and thickness of the geologic materials were coupled with LiDAR topographic data and analyzed using ESRI’s ArcGIS 10.6.1. Aquifer sensitivity to contamination was calculated based on the depth to the first aquifer unit, aquifer thickness, and the lithology of the aquifer materials. The surficial geologic mapping identified five lithostratigraphic units: the Cahokia Formation, the Equality Formation, the Henry Formation, and the Yorkville and Batestown Members of the Lemont Formation. The southeast to northwest trending Illiana Morainic System is the most prominent feature in the study area and delineates the maximum extent of the glaciers during the Livingston Phase of glaciation. Postglacial deposits of the Cahokia Formation, alluvium, interfinger, and overlie with glacial outwash of the Henry Formation along channels and drainage ways downslope of the moraine. The areas of least sensitivity are located over the Illiana Morainic System, whereas the greatest potential to contamination occurs where the thickest deposits of the Henry Formation and Cahokia Formation lie at or just below the land surface.



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This article was published in Hydrology 2020, 7, 69.