Undergraduate and graduate student presentations from the Department of Psychology, 2021 Online University Research Symposium, Illinois State University
Lauren Black and Mackenize Kelleher
Recent research has focused on event- and time-based prospective memory (PM) studied in lab settings. The current study focuses on scarcely studied naturalistic time-based PM tasks. Time-based PM is defined as remembering to carry out a task at a specific time in the future (Einstein & McDaniel, 1990, 2005). Two experiments were performed to compare the effects of various delays and types of reminders on time-based PM. In the first experiment, participants underwent a time-based PM task at a 1-, 3-, or 6-day delay in a naturalistic setting. Half of the participants were asked to repeat the delay and half were not in order to examine whether requiring a second response would have an effect on time-based PM. In the second experiment, participants underwent a 1- or 6-day delay in a naturalistic setting and were given an explicit or an implicit reminder. Results of Experiment 1 showed that there was a significant decline in PM performance between the 1- and 6-day delays. When the delay periods were repeated, there was no effect on PM accuracy. The results of Experiment 1 indicate that a long delay decreases PM performance in naturalistic settings. In addition, it also appears that when PM tasks are repeated, there was no significant increase in PM accuracy. Data for Experiment 2 are currently being collected.
Rebecca Bove, Lucy Okrasinski, Jacqueline Diaz, Ella Metzger, and Olivia Mangini
Language is an important aspect of child development. Cardinal number words such as one, two, and three emerge before ordinal number words such as first, second, and third, though both increase with age in early childhood (Colomé & Noel, 2012). Children first learn verbal lists of number words, then they are able to give those words meaning (Slusser, Ditta, & Sarnecka, 2013). The more number words children know, the greater their ordinal comprehension (Brannon & Van de Walle, 2001). When children are less familiar with ordinal labels, it can negatively impact problem solving (Miller, Marcovitch, Boseovski, & Lewowicz, 2015). Spatial language also improves from 3 to 5 years and helps with problem solving (Hund, Bianchi, Winner, & Hesson-Mcinnis, 2017; Simms & Genter, 2019). Our goal was to specify the developmental trajectory of cardinal, ordinal, and spatial language comprehension and production for 3- to 5- year old children. Children were randomly assigned to either the Tell Me or Give Me condition. In the Tell Me condition, children were asked to tell the researcher about an indicated car, testing language production; whereas, in the Give Me condition, children were asked to respond to our labels by putting the appropriate car(s) in the garage, testing language comprehension. All children completed cardinal, ordinal, and spatial trials in counterbalanced order. Cardinal trials included cardinal numeric words, such as one or three. Ordinal trials included sequential numeric words, such as first or third. Spatial trials probed locations, such as front, middle, or back. To date, 65 children have participated. Data collection has not been possible during the Covid-19 pandemic. As predicted, preliminary analyses revealed that there were significant improvements across development in cardinal, ordinal, and spatial language. Five-year-olds (M = .76, SE = .05) were significantly more accurate than were 4-year-olds (M = .59, SE = .03), who were significantly more accurate than 3-year-olds (M = .46, SE = .04). In addition, the Give Me group performed higher than the Tell Me group, suggesting comprehension may be easier than production. Children were significantly more accurate on cardinal trials (M = .87, SE = .03) than on spatial trials (M = .58, SE = .04) and on spatial trials than on ordinal trials (M = .36, SE = .04). Once completed, the results of this study may be helpful for understanding the ways in which complex language facilitates developmental success across domains.
For many years, United States educators have been experiencing an increased amount of stress due to continuously changing education policies, increased school accountability, and additional personal life stressors (e.g., finances, illness, etc.). Increased levels of educator stress has been highly correlated to low job satisfaction ratings, high burn-out rates, and overall negative consequences for teachers, students and school climate (Reiser et al., 2016). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention programs have exhibited promising results in reducing stress and increasing job satisfaction among a variety of populations (Reisner et al., 2016). This is a proposal outlining the implementation and effectiveness of an MBSR program for schoolbased professionals. This MBSR program is centered around, leading scientist and meditation practitioner, Jon Kabat-Zinn’s working definition of mindfulness: an awareness that arises from, intentionally, paying attention to the present moment in a non-judgmental manor (Kabat-Zinn, 2019). The purpose of this program is to aid school-based professionals in learning skills and attitudes that encourage greater present-moment awareness and overall intentionality to relationships and daily life experiences. This proposed program will include 8 weekly classes lasting approximately two hours, and on days that classes do not occur, participants are encouraged to dedicate 45 to 60 minutes to intentional mindfulness practice. In addition to teaching skills and attitudes related to mindfulness, another goal of this program is to reduce symptoms related to stress, anxiety, and depression, and increase job satisfaction and selfcompassion. Effectiveness of this MBSR program will be measured through a pre- and post-test design utilizing the following measures: Job Satisfaction Survey, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale – 21 Items (DASS-21), Self-Compassion Scale, Self-Rated Physical Health Scale, 12 items (PROMIS-12), and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS).
Accurate recognition of the people we encounter is important for successful navigation of many aspects of life, as faces are often the primary source for social cues. Yet, research on emotionally expressive facial recognition memory in specific has revealed mixed results. Some studies have found that happy faces are more accurately recognized than angry faces, whereas others have found the opposite. Pazderski and McBride (2018) provided evidence of delay length contributing to a happy face recognition advantage in some past studies (i.e., longer delays) versus an angry face recognition advantage in others (i.e., shorter delays). However, the root of the differences in emotionally expressive face processing is still unclear. The current study examined the influence of current anxiety levels on the encoding of novel emotionally expressive faces in a within-subject design that tested recognition of happy and fearful faces at two delays (immediate and 10 min). The results demonstrated a significant interaction among current anxiety levels, test delay length, and emotional expression processing. The pattern found by Pazderski and McBride (2018) was replicated with fearful faces. These results provide a step toward generalizing results found previously with angry faces to fearful expressions and show that anxiety does play a role in face processing.
This study looked into the impacts of parental roles and cultural identity on adolescent academic resiliency. Parents (mothers and fathers separately) who were less involved in a student’s academic life as well as students who had lower levels of cultural identity demonstrated an overall lower level of academic resilience. This suggests that parent roles of students may vary by youths’ cultural identity which impact students’ academic resiliency. Data was collected from two sources, 1) a Qualtrics survey of Latino students who did not attend college and 2) a generalized population of ISU students through SONA data collection software for a total sample size of 587 (Ages=18-26). Both qualitative and quantitative questions were asked to participants regarding their culture, values, family structures and support on and off campus or lack thereof. For the variable of parental roles (mothers and fathers separately) qualitative reports were reviewed and coded by seven undergraduate and graduate researchers. Researchers coded the data on a 1-5 scale with 1=very negative to 5 very positive. The mean score of the seven researchers was utilized in this project. Academic Resilience was measured using the Academic Resilience scale (ARS-30). This scale has three subscales. The moderation model that will be used throughout this study will test each subscale independently. The moderation model that will be used throughout this study shows how parental roles and cultural identity affect youth’s academic resilience. We look into Latino identity and college attendance to understand if there are differences between population groups. Preliminary findings suggest that cultural identity and parental roles did not differ by population groups. Yet there is evidence to suggest an indirect relationship of parental roles by cultural identity on academic resiliency.
This study examined best teaching practices in supplementary education programs, such as those that educate adolescents on healthy relationships, job-readiness skills, and financial literacy. Using focus groups, conducted over 5 years, this study found effective relationship education facilitation centers around the importance of course content, teacher characteristics, and teacherstudent connection.
Examining The Relationships Among Handedness And Neuromotor Functioning In Children's Written Language And Handwriting Outcomes
Handedness and language are lateralized functions of the brain with an almost linear relationship (Knechet et al., 2000). The relationship between handedness and written expression is not clear. The purpose of this poster is to determine if the degree of handedness (a lateralized fine motor skill) is associated with written language outcomes among second grade students. Handwriting was also observed as a measure of neuromotor functioning (Klein, 2020). Neuromotor functioning may have implications for the speed at which a child can write. A second purpose of this research is to determine if neuromotor skill is associated with transcriptional fluency rates.
Previous research (Potts et al., 2018; Rosenbaum & Bui, 2019) suggests that participants' time estimates for completing tasks is the primary predictive factor of task choice. However, these past studies have only compared a perceptual-motor task with a cognitive task. The current study compares cognitive tasks with other cognitive tasks in an attempt to more broadly generalize these findings. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to investigate subjective time as a predictive factor in cognitive task choices. Participants were given instructions on the three tasks (number-sorting, item generation, and addition/subtraction problems) that varied in difficulty level (low, medium, and high), and then made an estimate of how long each task would take them to complete at the medium difficulty level. Participants were then presented with trials on which two of the three tasks were shown at one of the three difficulty levels and were asked to choose to complete one of the tasks. Results indicated that participants’ subjective time estimates were not a predictor of task choices among these cognitive tasks. However, choice data did indicate that participants preferred the number sorting task to the other tasks at the medium and high difficulty levels. Future research should further investigate difficulty level and other possible factors that influence task choice because subjective time estimates was not shown to be predictive of task choices in these results.
This study aimed to compare false memories in short and long-term tests for semantic and phonological lists. The purpose of this study was to replicate our previous results with shorter lists in the short-term memory condition. Both the past and current study used 36 DeeseRoediger-McDermott (DRM, Roediger & McDermott, 1995) lists for the creation of simple false memories. The lists varied in their association to a nonstudied critical lure item: There were 18 semantic and 18 phonological lists. The first study used 6-item DRM lists, whereas the current study used 4-item DRM lists to ensure list length did not exceed working memory capacity. Both studies included recognition tests at short (less than 1 second delay) and long (after all lists had been presented) delays. In the short-term condition, lists were presented one at a time followed by an immediate one-item recognition test. In the LTM condition, after all lists were presented, there was a 1-minute break before a recognition test that tested all lists. The current study replicated the results of the first study, with almost identical mean proportions of false alarms. Results showed a dissociation in false alarm rates, such that in short-term tests there were more false alarms in phonological than sematic lists, whereas in long-term tests there were more false alarms for semantic than phonological lists. Successfully replicating the findings of the previous 6-item study, with the current 4-item study suggests that the results were not due to exceeding working memory capacity. At the short-term, phonological coding appears to drive errors and increases false alarms for phonological lists compared to semantic lists. After a delay the effect reverses, and semantically driven errors increase. Overall, the results suggest distinct processes are involved in the production of false memories in STM compared to LTM.
The present study focused on the subsample of Latinx youth who did not go to college to further their education. This study found that participants whose lives were impacted by immigration and had low involvement from parents towards academic success demonstrated lower academic resilience. This suggests that immigration impacts and parental rolls play major roles in Latinx youth achieving academic resilience. The sample focused on 373 total participants between the ages of 18-24 and did not attend college. Data was collected through Qualtrics software and were asked both qualitative and quantitative questions related to their culture, citizenship, family life, and educational experiences and values. Regarding the variable of immigration, participants were asked whether they or their parents are US citizens. For the variable of parental roles (mothers and fathers separately) qualitative reports were reviewed and coded by 7 undergraduate and graduate researchers. Researchers coded the data on a 1-5 scale with 1=very negative to 5 very positive. The mean score of the seven researchers was utilized in this project. Academic Resilience was measured using the Academic Resilience scale (ARS-30). This scale has three subscales. The moderation model that will be used throughout this study will test each subscale independently. The model supports how the impacts of immigration and parental roles affect the outcome of academic resilience within Latinx adolescents. Implications will suggest that immigration indirectly affects students’ academic resiliency through the role of each parent.
As part of the current study, researchers sought to determine if exposure to interpersonal racial microaggression (i.e., subtle insults based on stereotypes) would lead to cognitive depletion among Black college women, as prior research suggests that there exist multiple consequences associated with exposure to racial microaggressions (Murphy et al., 2012; Salvatore & Shelton, 2007). Researchers were also interested in examining the role of coping as a resiliency factor, as research suggests that Black women engage in varied coping strategies to deal with exposure to these indignities (Lewis et al., 2013). As such, using an experimental research design, 61 participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1) microaggression with coping, (2) microaggression without coping, (3) control with coping, and (4) control without coping. In the microaggression conditions, participants were exposed to racial microaggressions from a White research assistant, while those in the control condition heard a script that was similar but non-mircroaggressive. In the coping condition, participants were promoted to engage in a deep breathing exercise after hearing the mircroaggressive or control scripts, while those in the no coping conditions were promoted to wait patiently while the researcher left the room. The hypotheses were supported, as Black college women who were exposed to racial microaggressions in the no coping conditions experienced the greater amount of cognitive depletion, as measured by Stroop (1935) color-naming task, while those in the microaggression coping condition performed similarly to those in the control conditions on the cognitive task. Thus, findings from the current study support current literature, suggesting that when individuals holding marginalized identities, specifically Black women, are exposed racial microaggressions there is a significantly increased risk of detrimental consequences on their overall cognitive functioning, but that deep breathing may mitigate the effects of the racial microaggressions for Black women.
Throughout our development, we form lateralized biases (Goodwin & Michel, 1981), from selecting an object with one hand to complex role-differentiated bimanual actions. Handedness is an easily observable lateralized behavior and involves the consistent use of one hand when performing manual tasks. These manual actions concern the motor cortex's dominant effect on the body's contralateral side (Prieur, 2018). The asymmetric tonic neck reflex (ATNR) is a behavior in which neonates turn and hold their head to one side. Simultaneously, the ipsilateral arm stretches outward. The contralateral arm bends at the elbow. This position affords the opportunity for the infant to reinforce spatial mapping between the ipsilateral hand and the opposite brain hemisphere. The ATNR can be observed repeatedly to gain an approximation of an infant's head orientation preference, which has been related to the development of hand preference. This connection has been implicated in the development of hand preference (Goodwin & Michel, 1981), and hand preference has been related to the development of language (Nelson, Campbell, & Michel, 2014). Specifically, infants with an early right-hand preference scored higher on a standard language assessment at two years of age than infants with a late right or left-hand preference. This project extends this line of research by examining the relation between head orientation preference, hand preference, and language. Twelve infants were observed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks of age for their head orientation preference. At 12 and 16 weeks, and at 6, 7.5, 9, and 11 months, infants' hand preferences were observed. The hand preference assessment was performed at 12 and 16 weeks by hanging objects in the visual midline, while the infant was in a semi-reclined position. The hand that reached towards the objects was then recorded. Similarly, at later months, the infant was seated at a table, and a researcher presented objects on the table surface at the midline of the infant. These observations were recorded and later coded for lateralized reaching behaviors. Finally, the project seeks to relate these lateralized behaviors to language by conducting a language assessment on each child. It is expected, based on previous research by Nelson et al. (2014), that infants with early right-lateralized behaviors will show higher language scores than infants with later developing lateralized behaviors or those with a weak lateralized preference. Examining the relation between lateralized motor behaviors and language helps us determine the relation between these behaviors.
Youth May Protect Themselves By Seeking Less Committed Relationships, Which They Describe As "Talking."
The way that youth label their romantic relationships may provide important insight into interpersonal and intrapersonal processes that influence how they navigate their first romantic encounters. The present study found that “talking” relationships involved less exclusivity, different modes of and amounts of communication, and served different purposes than romantic relationships.
Dangerous Or Misunderstood?: Attributes Ascribed To Individuals With Mental Illness And Their Effects On Perceived Dangerousness
Individuals with mental illness may be considered rather common within the United States—as of 2017 roughly 1 in 5 U.S. adults experienced a mental illness and 1 in 25 experienced a severe mental illness (NAMI, 2019). Despite these prevalence rates, there are many misconceptions about individuals with mental illness. For example individuals with mental illness are perceived as dangerous (Angermeyer & Matschinger, 2003), unpredictable (Magliano et al., 2004), and aggressive (Adewuya & Makanjuola, 2008), despite research that suggests they are not more likely to be violent and/or dangerous (Monahan et al., 2017). These negative perceptions can lead to higher unemployment rates among individuals with mental illness, social rejection from the public, and decreased help-seeking behaviors. Although research has explored the role environmental (Stuart & Arboleda-Flórez, 2012), training (Crowe & Averett, 2015) and personal experience (Corrigan et al., 2001) in understandings the public’s perception of individuals with mental illness, little is known about how attributes ascribed to these individuals affects perceptions of dangerousness. Therefore, this study aims to investigate how the personal attributes of perceived unpredictability and aggression influence the relationship between perceptions mental illness and dangerousness for the disorders of schizophrenia and substance use disorder. To address this question, I will recruit 200 Illinois State University undergraduate students (aged 18-23) to complete an online survey. Participants will read through three vignettes depicting an individual with schizophrenia and three vignettes depicting an individual with substance use disorder. First, participants will be asked how likely it is that the individual in the vignette is suffering from a mental illness, then ascribe attributes to that individual, including unpredictable and aggressive. After reading through all six vignettes and ascribing attributes to the characters, participants will complete the Beliefs Toward Mental Illness scale. I hypothesize that participants will rate the vignette characters as having a mental illness; that perceived attributes of unpredictability and aggressiveness will mediate the relationship between mental illness and perceived dangerousness; and that participants will rate vignette characters with schizophrenia as more dangerous, unpredictable, and aggressive. Understanding the role of perceived unpredictability and aggressiveness in the relationship between mental illness and perceived dangerousness can improve previously ineffective anti-stigma efforts, decrease the public’s desired social distance from individuals with mental illness, and, overall, improve the quality of life for individuals with mental illness.
Nina Orlando and Berenice Contreras
Instructional Consultation (IC) is a collaborative stage-based process that focuses on academic and behavioral concerns from an ecological perspective (Rosenfield, 2002). School psychologist and teachers work together to assess the academic and behavioral concerns of children. Addressing these concerns allow for new learning conditions to be developed, thus allowing academic achievement to be improved within the classroom. Knotek et al. (2003) indicated that by understanding student’s problems as a result of the environment rather than an internal problem is a main goal within IC to alter how teachers view student’s school problems. The present study aims to systematically discover IC studies to understand the gap of insufficient research and inform the directions of future research. Specifically, the present review systematically identifies and analyzes the development of IC literature. Four data bases were examined using “instructional consultation” and “academic consultation” as key words. Further, the identified resources were limited to peer-reviewed, school-based, and empirical studies published in English. Initially, 254 articles were discovered. Of them, 99 articles were peer-reviewed. When including “school-based” as one of the criteria, 75 results were found. After each article was examined, 33 were found that focused on IC. Researchers removed seventeen non-empirical studies, which led to a result of 15 studies that meet the study criteria. Within the 17 studies, one study examined the communication approaches within IC as well as the transcription and coding involved (Barrett et. al., 2019); one examined the use of curriculum-based measurements at each stage of the problem-solving consultation perspective (Green & Shinn; 1990); one reported the influence of school interpreters on the process of IC (Lopez, 2000); one examined the seven dimensions of IC and the consultation behaviors of participants (Mckenna et. al., 2009); three reported the effects of students and teachers when implementing IC teams within the classroom (Berger et. Al., 2014; Gravois & Rosenfield 2006; Vu et. al., 2013); three studies reported teachers’ development of skills and student achievement when IC approaches are used (Fuchs et. al., 1991; Gravois et. al., 2009; Mesquita & Zollman; 1995); two examined the RTI system within the IC model (Newman et. al., 2014; William & Staulters, 2014); three studies examined interaction and development skills of consultants and consultees while using IC (Benn et. al., 2008; Knotek et. al., 2003; Newman et. al., 2017); and two examined the use of problem-solving processes to support IC (Bartels & Mortenson 2008; & Knotek, 2012).
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, traditionally in-person courses were forced to make the difficult decision to transition to an online format. Thankfully, there have been significant improvements in online technology platforms and programs that advance the virtual learning experience. For example, technologies like Flipgrid, Kahoot, Nearpod, and Zoom are widely available to enhance the learning environment for students and teachers alike. Extant research on online learning has resulted in mixed reviews. For example, Glenn (2018) points out that students who may not normally participate in an in-person learning environment can no longer blend into the back of the classroom, as participation is incredibly important to advance in the e-learning environment. Further, students may feel intimidated when it comes to reaching out to professors when they are not able to meet with them in person. Conversely, and perhaps more positively, Glenn highlights that e-learning, asynchronous options make it possible to complete schooling with a job and family demands. Further, Yamagata-Lynch (2015) found that, in her graduate level online course, that students felt the online environment gave them the chance to be a more active learner and student. Given the ubiquity of online learning and the use of programs and technologies in the classroom, it is essential to understand students’ experiences and perspectives in these digital environments to ensure pedagogical practices align with the needs of learners. As such, we sought to explore students’ experiences with technology in the classroom to advance this area of research. Specifically, we will systematically examine students’ experiences using multiple programs and technologies during a 300-level class. We will use an embedded mixed methods design to obtain survey data on students’ preferences and barriers using Nearpod, Flipgrid, Zoom, and ReggieNet. We will also assess their perceptions of whether these programs or technologies advanced their learning throughout the semester. These technologies will be used synchronously and asynchronously throughout the semester. The class is comprised of 24 (21 female) junior and senior undergraduate students majoring in psychology. The students will receive class credit for completing the surveys. In this ever-changing and unsure time in education, it is crucial we understand how online education aids or hinders students’ learning and for those students to get the chance to reflect on their experiences in real time. This study will contribute to the literature on undergraduate college students’ experiences with technology in the classroom and seeks to inform future pedagogical practice
A formative program evaluation model for an MTSS/RTI organizational framework was initiated at a Midwestern elementary school. The program evaluation included analysis of 2.5 years of reading/writing and 1.5 years of math student outcome data. Evaluation results along with the methods of student outcome data analysis will be discussed. Finally, perceived strengths, areas for improvement, relevant recommendations, and overall conclusions will be presented.
Problem: The dual pathways model of binge eating (Stice, Nemeroff, & Shaw, 1996) suggests that restricted eating could lead to disinhibited binge eating as a rebound. This premise has received mixed empirical support (e.g., de Luz et al., 2015). Similarly, the energy depletion model (Baumeister, 2002) proposes that self-regulatory efforts (e.g., restricted eating) would deplete psychological energy, resulting in the failure of subsequent self-regulation (e.g., binge eating). To the authors’ knowledge, this mediating role of depleted energy in the link between restricted eating and binge eating has not been examined directly. It is partly because the nature of psychological energy has not been clearly defined or directly measured. This study operationally defined psychological energy as felt energy for regulating oneself (O’Connor, 2004; Thayer, 1988) and created a self-report measure. Then, we tested a path model wherein restricted eating was associated with binge eating indirectly through low felt energy.
Procedure: A total of 210 college students enrolled in a large Midwestern university (35 cismen, 172 ciswomen, 3 others, mean age=19.90) participated in an online survey. It included a felt energy measure developed for this study, the Short-Form Health Survey Vitality subscale (Ware & Sherbourne, 1992), the Binge Eating Scale (Gormally et al., 1982), and the Dutch Eating Behavior Scale (van Strien et al., 1986). A path analysis was conducted using SPSS PROCESS v3.5 (Hayes, 2018).
Results: The felt energy measure scores were positively correlated with the Vitality subscale scores, supporting the concurrent validity of the measure. The path analysis revealed that restricted eating was negatively associated with felt energy (β=-.27, p=.04), which in turn was associated negatively with binge eating (β =-.22, p=.07). Restricted eating was also directly associated with binge eating (β =.38, p=.002). The bootstrapping analysis revealed that the indirect effect was not significant, however, β=.06, CI=-.01, .15.
Conclusions and Implications: The proposed indirect paths were significant as predicted, although the indirect effect was not significant possibly due to the small sample size. With a larger sample from the incoming data, a complete result would be presented at the conference. This study potentially clarifies a conceptual issue regarding the nature of psychological energy as an intervening mechanism for self-regulation failure such as binge eating. This study also potentially clarifies the meaning of current mixed findings on the link between restricted eating and binge eating by directly testing the intervening role of felt energy.
Based on the dual pathways model of binge eating and resource depletion model, this study examined whether low felt energy mediated the association between restricted eating and binge eating. A path analysis revealed significant path coefficients in the expected direction, but the indirect effect of felt energy was not significant.
Nicholas Shilney and Emily Aument
A. Problem: Opening college campuses in Fall 2020 during the continued Covid-19 pandemic relied upon college students’ adherence to safety guidelines on and off campus. The theory of planned behaviors (Ajzen, 1991) suggests that following safety guidelines would be determined by students’ beliefs about the guidelines themselves (i.e., positive attitudes, subjective norms—perception of others’ expectations, behavioral control—perception of one’s capability). Also, college students feel pandemic-related emotional distress (Son et al., 2020), with their psychological needs for relatedness and autonomy frustrated (Deci & Ryan, 2000) due to limited social contacts and imposed changes on college life (Lederer et al., 2020), which may discourage their cooperation. Self-determination theory also predicts better safety measure adherence when students identify with its value (i.e., identified regulation) than when they feel forced to do so (i.e., introjected or external regulation). Thus, this study examined health guideline beliefs, felt threat, frustrated needs for relatedness and autonomy and regulatory motivations as predictors of both college students’ intentions and enactment of the four safety measures (i.e., washing hands, limiting travels, avoiding social contacts, and physical distancing; Vansteenkiste, n.d.).
B. Procedure: College students (mean age=19.72) in a U.S. Midwestern university (47 cismen, 189 ciswomen) participated in the online survey that included the Feeling of Threat Scale (Chen et al., 2015), Need Frustration Scale (Chen, Vansteenkiste, et al., 2015), Adherence to Safety Measures (Vansteenkiste, n.d.), Motivations to Adhere to the Measures (Soenens et al., 2009), and an adapted Theory of Planned Behavior measure (Ajzen, 1991). Eight hierarchical regression analyses were conducted with four behavioral intentions and enactments as dependent variables. Felt threat and frustrated needs were entered in Step 1; positive attitude, subjective norms, and perceived control in Step 2; and identified, introjected, and external regulation in Step 3.
C. Results: The model predicted intention to engage in covid-safety behaviors significantly, R=.64, R2=.41, F(10,124)=8.44, p<.001. In Step1, feeling of threat predicted intention positively, β=.22, p=.01.
In Step2, subjective norms predicted intention positively, β=.41, p<.001. In Step 3, subjective norms, β=.38, p=.005, identified regulation, β=.24,p=.05, and introjectedregulation, β=.23,p=.03, predicted intention positively. The model predicted behavioral engagement significantly, R=.56, R2=.32, F(10,12)=5.61, p<.001. In both Steps2 and 3, only subjective norms predicted intention positively, β=.47, p<.001 in Step2; β=.38, p=.001.
D. Implications: University professionals may promote identified motivation for safety measures while finding ways to support autonomy and establish peer norms on campus to enhance safety adherence among college students.
This study examined health beliefs, regulatory motivations, and frustrated psychological needs as predictors for adherence to covid-19 related safety measures among U.S. college students. Results showed that subjective norms (i.e., perception of others’ expectations), identified regulation (i.e., identifying with the value), and frustrated need for autonomy (negative prediction) contributed significantly. predicted both intention and enactment of safety measures (i.e., washing hands, limiting travels, avoiding social contacts, and physical distancing).
Effects Of Attention At Encoding And Retrieval On Short And Long-Term False Memories For Emotional Stimuli
Grace Shine and Elizabeth Marsh
The proposed study will examine the effects of attention at encoding and retrieval on short- and long-term false memory for emotional stimuli using the Desse–Roediger–McDermott (DRM, Roediger & McDermott, 1995) paradigm. DRM research has shown that there are differences in false memory for stimuli that are emotionally valenced and that emotional information is often better recalled than neutral information. Prior research has also shown different effects of attention on emotional stimuli and suggests that negatively valenced stimuli are processed differently than positive and neutral stimuli. In the present study, this phenomenon is further investigated across two experiments; attention is manipulated at encoding (Experiment 1) and at retrieval (Experiment 2). Attention will be manipulated with a concurrent number memory task. Both experiments will use the same emotionally valenced DRM word lists from Zhang et al. (2017): 4 positive, 4 negative, and 4 neutral, with immediate and delayed recognition tests. The results of this study will allow us to draw conclusions about the effects of attention at encoding and retrieval across the two experiments. The results are expected to provide additional support for previous findings on attention’s role in false memories for emotionally valenced stimuli, while adding to our knowledge by comparing the effects of attention on false memories at both short and long-term with a modified short-term procedure. The study will also us to draw conclusions about the differences in the processing of emotional compared to neutral stimuli.
Scholarly Works Of School Psychology Faculty: How Much Of Our Field's Current Publications Focus On Racism And Anti-Racism?
Laine Twanow and Marissa Shaull
In the summer of 2020, following heightened attention on instances of police brutality, racist violence, and Black lives lost at the hands of police, the school psychology community came together to reaffirm their commitment as anti-racist agents of change (García-Vázquez et al., 2020). School psychology faculty and their publications can be a key force in moving these efforts forward. Their works train future school psychologists and guide best practice, and can demonstrate current activity, focus, and expertise within the field. With these potential impacts of scholarly works in mind, work that identifies and describes racism specifically is productive because it addresses racism without softening language in fear of white fragility, or other sensitivity or defensiveness. Work specific to anti-racism is important because it demonstrates a practice beyond being non-racist, one that is an active practice of challenging racism and the values, structures, and behaviors that perpetuate it (Kendi, 2019; Nelson, 2015). Thus, this inprogress study seeks to identify existing scholarly publications that focus on racism and antiracism from among all school psychology publications. The research team identified 906 professors from 213 American Psychological Association (APA) accredited and National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) approved school psychology programs and examined a sample of 11,262 publications conducted by 510 professors from 130 programs looking for content relating to the field of school psychology. Accredited programs were found through APA and NASP websites, while each professor’s name was listed on their university’s website. An initial publication search was conducted using each professor’s name within Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), APA PsycInfo, and APA PsycArticles. Upon close inspection, 3,351 publications were found containing research in school psychology. A small sample of 284 publications were categorized yielding to 2.46 percent publications relating to racism and 0.70 percent relating to antiracism. The remaining 96.8 percent related to other categories within school psychology. Considering the impact of the field’s scholarly publications on current and future school psychologists, the field needs an increase in articles focusing on racism and anti-racism to cultivate our skills as school psychologists and to demonstrate our field’s growth in building expertise and focus on these important efforts over time. Some limitations of the current study, including difficulty identifying professors and each of their publications, will be listed within our poster.
Hannah Westphal and Amanda Martin
The implications of memory and its capacities are far reaching. Our memory is a recollection of facts, events, experiences, and an awareness of our surroundings in an attempt to make sense of our world. Memory and its validity in particular is especially useful in court-room and clinical settings. However, our memory is prone to human error and often times we experience the phenomenon of false memories as a result of the information overload we subject ourselves to on a daily basis. The purpose of the present study was to to investigate the relationship between induced moods, list types, and the overall effect these variables have on false memory in the short term. Participants were instructed to listen to pieces of classical music and were then designated to complete a memory task through the DRM paradigm that experimentally creates simple false memories for words Past studies (e.g., McBride et al., 2019) have shown that at short-term delays, false memories are more frequent for phonological than semantic lists. In addition, it has been found that participants in a positive mood had higher rates of false memories than participants with a negative mood, and the present study aimed to replicate these results. Through our procedure, we hypothesized that participants in a more positive mood would have higher levels of false recognition rates while studying phonological word lists than participants in a negative mood, but expected no difference in false memories in for semantic lists due to the inferiority of semantic information stored for short delays.
Redefining Creativity: A New Approach To Understanding Divergent And Convergent Thinking And Personality
Lauryn Zinke, Ellis Heyen, Lucas Jasinski, Natalie Main, Rachel Thomas, and Nathan Trice
Researchers and practitioners have long been interested in understanding creativity and related aspects of thinking. For example, studies have focused on the ways in which convergent and divergent thinking and personality factors relate to creativity (Guilford, 1950). Traditionally, convergent thinking involves finding the correct answer to a problem; in contrast, divergent thinking involves generating a creative response through spontaneous exploration of different ideas, perhaps via associative processes (Guilford, 1950). Past research shows that divergent thinking and openness to experience, an aspect of personality that involves imagination and exploration, are related (e.g., Chamorro-Premuzic, 2008; MacKinnon, 1962, 1965; Silvia et al., 2009). The goal of our study is to further explore the relations between various measures of convergent and divergent thinking and openness to experience. Participants will be 100 ISU students 18 years or older recruited through the Department of Psychology online sign-up system. They will complete our measures via an online survey methodology that will include the Remote Associates Test (RAT), the Unusual Uses Test, a vocabulary test, the 10-item TIPI Personality questionnaire, and a demographic survey. The RAT is a well-known test of convergent thinking, where three unrelated words are shown, and participants must relate the fourth word. The Unusual Uses Test is a popular test of divergent thinking, where participants must come up with creative and uncommon uses for an object. But, according to Gabora (2019), the RAT may be more suitably classified as a divergent thinking test, especially when insight is involved. If the RAT relies on divergent thinking, then we would expect to observe strong, positive correlations between the RAT and Unusual Uses Test and openness to experience measures from the personality questionnaire. However, we would expect to observe no correlations with vocabulary, a convergent thinking measure. These results would provide a better understanding of creativity processes.