To prepare graduate students to implement evidence-based practice effectively, educators must integrate instruction on rational clinical decision-making into course curricula. Three faculty members at different universities adopted an educational approach derived from the Rehabilitation Treatment Specification System (RTSS) to teach and assess clinical decision-making in the context of treating acquired cognitive-communication disorders for people with traumatic brain injury. Using treatment theory illustrated in the RTSS, the authors piloted instruction and assessment materials to examine potential usefulness of the approach and effects on student knowledge and confidence in clinical decision-making. The results indicated that the instructional approach effectively bolstered students’ knowledge of and confidence implementing memory-based cognitive-communication intervention. Additionally, using a case-based assessment tool, the authors were able to measure how students modified treatment activities in response to different contextual variables. Implications and suggestions for implementing theory-based instruction in graduate education are discussed.